Q and A with Jon Barron
The Baseline of Health® Foundation and Baseline Nutritionals® (BN) each receive thousands of questions every month. Many of them are forms of spam. Hundreds of them are requests to join network marketing companies. Several thousand are requests for me to play personal physician for free. And there are several thousand each month that are fairly straight forward and can be handled by the staffs at both entities. Which leaves the ones that are forwarded to me!
Ultimately, there are several hundred questions each month that are beyond the experience of the customer support team at Baseline Nutritionals and/or the research staff at the Foundation. Those get shipped to me, either for guidance in how to approach them or, in exeptional cases, to actually craft an answer. And out of all those, there are some, despite the limited scope of the question itself, that open the door to broader issues related to health and nutrition. I've selected some of those questions, and expanded on the answers that I originally crafted for staff, to share with you today. (Again, these questions come from both the Baseline of Health Foundation and Baseline Nutritionals since I'm involved with both. Normally, we keep these two sites very separate and almost never mention a Baseline Nutritionals' product by name on the Foundation website. This is one of those rare occasions where it makes sense to do so, not to promote the products, but because many of the questions are product/ingredient specific.)
You Can Only Fit So Much into a Formula
Your Daily Health Tip on Kapikachhu was interesting. I use Baseline Nutritionals' Men's Formula . Why isn't Kapikachhu added to the Men's Formula?
Kapikachhu is a fine ingredient, but it's a question of math. You can only fit so much bio-active into a given dose of any supplement. If you want to add something new, you either have to remove something else, or drop every other ingredient by a little to make room for the new ingredient. For example, have you ever noticed 500 mg capsules with 50 spectacular ingredients in them? Aren't they great? Everything you need all in one supplement. Unfortunately, simple math says that if the ingredients are split evenly, you can only fit 10 one-thousandths of a gram of each ingredient in the formula. If they're not evenly split (which is usually the case), the bottom 20-30 ingredients may only be present in amounts of 2-3 thousandths of a gram. The ink on the label used to identify the ingredient may actually weigh more than the ingredient itself. In the trade, that's called pixie dust.
The simple answer to your question, then, is that I've determined that the ingredients already used in the Men's Formula are more important than kapikachhu -- and need to be used at the levels currently in the formula. Thus, although, kapikachhu is a fine ingredient, it didn't make its way into the Men's Formula. In the Women's Formula, on the other hand, its benefits rated high enough to make its way in.
Why Don't You Include Ingredient "X" in your Formulas
Is there any reason you left out phytase? There is a lot of info nowadays about how the phytic acid in whole grain foods somehow prevents helpful minerals such as zinc from being fully absorbed. Therefore we should be taking phytase, shouldn't we?
Company "X" includes it in their digestive enzyme formula, and their webpage lists all the reasons it's included.
Unfortunately, adding phytases to a human enzyme supplement is not necessarily as easy as it sounds. The first problem is that phytase isn't a single enzyme. There are actually four classes of phytase:
- Histidine acid phosphatases (HAPs)
- ß-propeller phytases
- Purple acid phosphatases
- Protein tyrosine phosphatase-like phytases
So which do you use and in what proportion and in what amounts? There are no human studies to indicate the answer to these questions.
Second, phytases have to be present at sufficient levels to be effective. Otherwise, they function merely as label dressing -- something that looks good on a product label but has no functional value. How much is required to be beneficial is open to question. And what would you remove from an existing formula to make room for them is another important question. Remember, there's only so much room in a capsule. If you put something new in, you have to take something out to make room for it. Is the formula better or worse for doing that?
Third, although the use of phytases in animal husbandry has a strong history, their use in humans, although encouraging (they seem to help with about 30% of the phytic acid), is much less proven. Also the amounts used are much, much, much higher in animal husbandry than you will find in human supplements. For example, with chickens, studies have been done with 300 and 600 FTU per kg of body weight (that's 2.2 pounds). For a comparable level in a 150 lb person, you're looking at 20,000 FTU. The amount used in the supplement you referred to is 0.5 FTU, which is pretty much pixie dust.
And fourth, if you soak or sprout your beans or grains, as you should, they generate their own phytases at levels sufficient to break down the phytates for optimized utilization of nutrients.
I am always watching developments in the world of nutrition and enzymes, and if at any point I believe that the use of phytases in a digestive formula warrants reducing the levels of one of the other enzymes to make room for them, I will look to incorporate a phytase blend in my digestive enzyme formula.
Vegetable Stearate VS Magnesium Stearate
We just purchased your Digestive Enzymes and pHi-Zymes. After they arrived, I noticed they both contain ‘vegetable stearate' and ‘stearic acid'. I spoke with my naturopathic doctor and she said that these are the same ingredients as ‘magnesium stearate', they are just from different sources, but in the end they are all the same, not good for the body. Help me understand what I am missing about these ingredients.
I do not use magnesium stearate. I use vegetable sourced stearic acid (vegetable stearate and stearic acid are the same thing). Some people claim that magnesium stearate and vegetable stearate are identical. But despite what your naturopath said, they are not the same. The simplest difference to understand is that magnesium stearate contains magnesium (Mg(C18H35O2)2). Vegetable stearate does not (C18H36O2). With a little close inspection, you will also find differences in the amount of hydrogen and in the structure of the molecule itself. These are not insignificant differences. When you consider that H2O is water and H2O2 is hydrogen peroxide, you should get a sense of how different magnesium stearate and vegetable stearate are. You may now be wondering, "If they're so different, why does my naturopath think they're the same?" As it turns out, there is a great deal of misinformation available online now -- and once it's "out there," it circulates like the latest celebrity gossip, developing cachet by virtue of "cut and paste" repetition. Once someone reads the same misinformation on several websites, it becomes true in their mind by virtue of repetition -- as opposed to fact. One other source of confusion is the fact that the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) calls both magnesium stearate and vegetable stearate (despite their differing formulas) octadecanoic acid.
Incidentally, stearate is required as a flow agent whenever you send a powder with any tendency towards "stickiness" through either a tableting or encapsulation machine. If you do not use a flow agent, the powder gums up the works and jams the equipment. As a final note, stearic acid (as opposed to magnesium stearate) is an essential saturated fatty acid that is found in all vegetable, seed, nut, and animal oils. Although stearic acid can be derived from several sources, including bovine, the most common source in better quality nutritional supplements is vegetable stearic acid primarily from coconut and palm oils. Incidentally, if you use olive oil, you are getting far, far, far more stearic acid from that than from its use as a flow agent. Olive oil is a prime source of stearic acid.
Olive Leaf Extract
I recently read the abstract of a study that found that high doses of Olive Leaf Extract caused liver fibrosis in mice.1 As it seems to contradict all the other research I have read about olive leaf extract and could be a ploy of big pharma to snuff out another of the best anti-microbials around, I am very concerned about this -- also in case it is really a danger.
I have had a report of one doctor warning patients about olive leaf extract from my website because it "causes liver damage" and have been challenged over a statement that olive leaf has very low toxicity. I am not savvy enough to dissect the methodology used in this experiment and argue the point and want to know if it is indeed a valid concern. I know that you use olive leaf extract in your Super ViraGon formula. Hopefully this is not the next herb under attack.
I see your study and raise you with the 2010 study reported in Pathology that shows that olive leaf extract actually protects against liver damage.2
The bottom line is that a single study with mice doesn't mean very much. Standard lab rats and lab mice are insulin-resistant, hypertensive, and short-lived. With a two-year life cycle, they metabolize drugs and supplements much more quickly than we do. In addition, having unlimited access to food makes the animals prone to cancer, type-2 diabetes, renal failure, and liver disease. It alters their gene expression in substantial ways; and there's reason to believe that nutritionally rundown rodents respond differently -- abnormally, even -- to experimental drugs or natural supplements. In fact, only about 20% of mouse studies translate to humans. Although mouse trials are useful, they are far from definitive.3
In the end, though, perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind is that with close to 20 years of commercial use for olive leaf extract, and millions of people using it, there has been no evidence of liver damage among those users. If only pharmaceutical drugs could make that claim.
I have just read your Barron Report on Carnosine. You reference some studies but do not list the source of these studies from Russia and Australia. Can you tell me what they are?
When I first started writing reports for the Baseline of Health Foundation, I used links instead of references. It made life much easier for readers in that they could instantly click on the appropriate link and see the source material. Unfortunately, over time, that didn't work out so well as links disappeared, as did any way to easily locate the original reference without the link. That's why I now list all references as citations at the bottom of newsletters. Even if the link provided in the reference becomes non-functional, the citation itself allows you to still track down the source material in its new location.
That said; here are the references you are looking for.
- Retardation of the Senescence of Cultured Human Diploid Fibroblasts by Carnosine4
- Further Evidence for the Rejuvenating Effects of the Dipeptide L-Carnosine on Cultured Human Diploid Fibroblasts.5
- Effect of Carnosine on Age-induced Changes in Senescence-accelerated Mice6
- Carnosine Protects Against Excitotoxic Cell Death Independently of Effects on Reactive Oxygen Species7
- Carnosine: Its Properties, Functions and Potential Therapeutic Applications8
- How Carnosine Protects Against Age-Related Disease9
- Carnosine and protein carbonyl groups: a possible relationship10
- A possible new role for the anti-ageing peptide carnosine11
- Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein12
- An Advanced Glycation Endproduct Cross-link Breaker Can Reverse Age-related Increases in Myocardial Stiffness13
- Glycation End-product Cross-link Breaker Reduces Collagen and Improves Cardiac Function in Aging Diabetic Heart14
- Toxic Effects of Beta-amyloid(25-35) on Immortalised Rat Brain Endothelial Cell: Protection by Carnosine, Homocarnosine and Beta-alanine15
- Influence of advanced glycation end-products and AGE-inhibitors on nucleation-dependent polymerization of beta-amyloid peptide16
Cancer and Alkalinity
Are you just like Dr M******, wanting to sell your products and not letting people know that cancer cells cannot survive in an alkaline environment. If you keep your body 80% alkaline and eat only 20% acid foods like the proteins, you should be OK (a 4:1 ratio in your diet). If you go down to 3:1 ratio, you open your body to all kinds of illnesses. There are also water machines now that keep your body in an alkaline state which will eliminate many pains and illnesses.
It appears that you have not read anything that I have written about alkalinity and cancer. For example, in my article/lecture, "Let's Talk Cancer," I say:
"And you still want to alkalinize your body. Cancer thrives in an acid environment. Cesium is the most alkaline mineral in nature. Cesium chloride is a salt form of cesium. If you're working with a healer who understands it and can regularly monitor your body's pH, supplementing with cesium chloride can be extremely helpful in improving your body's pH very quickly. Other methods include the use of "ionic" water machines that separate tap water into acid (for washing) and alkaline (for consuming) streams, coral calcium supplements, and alkalinizing drops added to your drinking water -- and, of course shifting your diet to more alkalinizing foods."
However, stating that cancer "cannot" survive in an alkaline environment is simply not true. Improving your alkalinity does not guarantee that you will not get cancer; although it does significantly improve your odds of not getting it. If it guaranteed it, than people who live on perfect diets would never get cancer -- but some do.
Depressing Your Body's Ability to Produce Digestive Enzymes
Hi, love reading your newsletters, very helpful in my studies of natural medicine. I have a question about a paragraph on the page where you recommend products, and it's about your choice to supplement with digestive enzymes over anything else.
"At one time, I used to consider a broad-based vitamin/mineral supplement the cornerstone of the Baseline of Health® Program. Nowadays, I'm not so sure. Personally, I probably use more digestive enzymes than any other single supplement. If I had one single supplement to take, it would probably be digestive enzymes with every meal."
My anatomy and physiology lecturer once said to us that supplementing with digestive enzymes regularly could be a problem as it could lead to the body producing less of its digestive enzymes because it feels the need to do so less as we are providing them in the form of a pill and in so doing could lead to us becoming dependent on them long term. What's your opinion on that?
Your lecturer's key argument is that regular use of digestive enzymes weakens your digestion because your body no longer has to do the work itself and you will then become dependent on them. At first glance it sounds reasonable and is similar to the exercise argument: if you stop exercising, you start to atrophy and become weak. As I said, at first glance, your lecturer's argument has the appearance of being true; but for it to be true, several other things must also be true.
- Your pancreas would have to be more like a muscle (which strengthens with work) as opposed to a gland, which exhausts itself with work. For example, your adrenals glands do not strengthen with work; they become exhausted, and with excessive use can become non-functional. Anatomically, of course, the pancreas is a gland and not a muscle.
- It would have to be natural for people to eat cooked and processed food -- or perhaps mankind just stumbled on fast food as a better way to eat.
- The more cooked and processed food you eat over time, the stronger your digestive system would get since it would be exercised more -- at least according to the theory.
- On the other hand, eating raw foods would be equivalent to using digestive enzymes since they are enzyme rich and thus require less work to digest, and thus people who eat raw foods would weaken their digestive systems over time.
- The bottom line would be that people who eat cooked and processed food would be healthier long term than people who eat raw live foods.
I'm not sure, despite what your anatomy and physiology lecturer says, that real world evidence supports those statements. If you want to gain a better understanding of how supplemental enzymes actually work, check out my series of newsletters on enzymes.
I see that there is very little of the nattokinase in your pHi-Zymes. I would think it to be a more important ingredient. What is the purpose of the amount at 450 rather than 4500 or 45,000?
pHi-Zymes is not a dedicated nattokinase formula. It is a systemic enzyme formula that incorporates nattokinase. As a formula, the combination of ingredients work together better and produce more benefits than any single ingredient product. You might just as well ask why a high dose nattokinase supplement doesn't include Seaprose-S. Also, if the nattokinase were higher, you wouldn't be able to use pHi-Zymes at the levels required for its athletic performance enhancing benefits, because the anticoagulant effects would be too strong. Or you wouldn't enjoy its benefits vis-a-vis dental plaque. The bottom line is that the efficacy of pHi-Zymes has been proven by tens of thousands of people who have used the formula since it was first released in 2003. The formula is designed the way it is because it works. (Check out the three pHi-Zymes testimonials near the end of the newsletter.)
pHi-Zymes and Beneficial Bacteria
I would like to know if systemic proteolytic enzymes (pHi-Zymes) digest beneficial bacteria.
Actually, "systemic" means they don't actually spend much time in your intestinal tract in contact with beneficial bacteria; rather, they enter your system -- i.e. your bloodstream -- before they ever reach your colon. But that said, you would indeed be in a fine fix if all proteolytic enzymes "ate" beneficial bacteria, considering that your pancreas pumps out some very strong proteolytic enzymes of its own to help digest your meals. And some of those, since they are pumped out in the presence of food, do indeed make their way down into your colon. Your beneficial bacteria survive them quite nicely. Long story short: it's not an issue.
Men's Formula and Blood Cell Counts
I have been taking Men's Formula. Just had my yearly physical and my red blood cell count was at the upper limits. Would Men's Formula cause a higher red blood cell count? Just trying to eliminate everything before looking into the bad things that cause high red blood cell counts.
There are actually a number of ingredients in the Men's formula that have demonstrated an ability toimprove red blood cell counts, including:
- American Ginseng
- Tribulus terrestris
- Muira puama
So far, though, no one has ever complained about the counts going too high. And for whatever it's worth, I noticed that when I started using my own formula, my own blood counts pushed to the high end of normal.
Not every email that arrives at Baseline Nutritionals or the Foundation is a question or request. We often get testimonials about how following the Baseline of Health Program or using one of my formulas has helped in a significant way. And to tell the truth, it's those emails that keep us going and make all the long hours seem worthwhile. Thanks to all of you who take the time to let us know when something is working for you.
Testimonial for kidney formula
"My surgery was cancelled today, as I was lying on the operating table for the removal of my kidney stone - when they could find no stone to remove!
"To back up, I have experienced numerous problems over the past several weeks relating to my large kidney stones - 1-1/2cm, too big to pass. I was in pain. It all started when my regular doctor's office called at 9:30pm, getting me out of bed and advising me that my white blood count was 22,000 and to get to an emergency room, pronto. I proceeded to a major Minneapolis hospital, Abbott Northwestern. Their findings: infection puss in my kidney had caused blood poisoning. It had also led to a bleeding stomach ulcer. My blood hemoglobin had dropped to 6.9 - stones were too big to pass. They immediately scheduled surgery. They used laser lithroscopy to zap one stone, but another remained, and I was too weak to proceed. Several weeks later, after the blood infection was eliminated and hemoglobin back to 14, ($76,000 later), we scheduled a shock wave lithotripsy treatment, several weeks out.
"In the meantime, I had begun taking your kidney formula, in hopes I could dissolve the stone prior to this next scheduled surgery - AND IT WORKED! Today, lying on the operating table, they couldn't find the stone, only grey mush/gravel on the X-ray, where the stone should have been. The surgeon was amazed at the results of the pre-op X-ray. They couldn't find the stone - had never seen anything like it -- and wanted to know more about what I had done. Then, the surgery team wheeled me into the operating room to confirm, and/or operate. Subsequent operating room X-rays confirmed absence of the solid large stone to zap, only some grey like mush or gravel.
"It was interesting to see the nurses tearing up the work order paperwork - advising me there would be no-charge.
"Results? Surgery was cancelled - I will get the stent removed next week - I am pain free - and at age 81, we will monitor the kidney stone area over the next few months, to see the gravel eliminated. I can't believe this is for real! The surgeon was dumbfounded - and she was anxious to learn more about the method I had used, the kidney formula. She had not heard of such a successful treatment in her specialty practice of 12 years. I told her I had mixed feelings, as I didn't mean to put her out of business - and she laughed, wasn't worried. I will hand over your brochure on my next office visit, as she requested, - and at that time she will also remove my stent.
"Thank you ever so much for your help - and - keep up the good work."
Testimonial for the Baseline of Health
"I started following the Baseline of Health recommendations for eating and cleansing at the start of this year. I admit that I did it because of the great weight loss a friend experienced following the program. I haven't lost any weight. HOWEVER, I am a tax accountant and for the first year in my life (I am 50) I did not get sick during tax season. I am exposed to almost 300 different people (carrying 300 different virus/bacterial infections, etc) during a time when I am sleep deprived and nutritionally deficient. It is really huge that I was able to stay healthy through the season. I have fought cancer twice in the last 5 years. The last battle included radiation, which caused me to have non-stop infections - until I started following the Baseline of Health recommendations.
"Just wanted you to know."
Testimonial for pHi-Zymes #1
"I've been taking the pHi-Zymes for about a month now, and this is the best I've felt in years! I'm 54 years old, and I have renewed energy! I have tendonitis in my legs, and haven't been able to exercise much. My energy was decreasing and the pain was increasing. I could exercise on my startionary bike for only 3-4 minutes at a time. But now, since taking the pHi-Zymes, I'm up to 20 minutes! I used to live on ibuprofen, but I haven't had to take one in a month!"
Testimonial for pHi-Zymes #2
"Last spring was the worst allergy/asthma season for me. My symptoms progressed to the point that I was vomiting at work and was forced to go on leave. My allergies and asthma have worsened every year since moving to Sacramento in 1995. This spring, after further testing, I found out I was allergic to molds, trees, weeds, grasses, dust mites, animal dander, and several foods. My symptoms also made me more sensitive to other environmental irritants with resultant increasing chemical sensitivities limiting my ability to do my job as a nurse practitioner due to perfume exposures.
"Desperate to get off the anti-histamines that made me just want to sleep and frustrated with the time that needs to be put in to go through the series of allergy shots which were not guarantee, I started researching several alternative products on the market. One of the products I purchased was pHi-Zymes from Baseline Nutritionals. After trying some of the other products I purchased and not getting very noticeable results, I stopped them and tried the pHi-Zymes alone. I noticed that on first onset with a sneezing spell or itching from a substance I most likely ate, I would ingest just one pHi-Zyme capsule with almost immediate gradual reduction in histamine release. After about five minutes, the itching and sneezing completely stopped and did not progress to any of my usual symptoms of throat tightening and difficulty breathing.
"I am so ecstatic that I have found a life saving alternative to antihistamines. My chemical sensitivities are also lessening with the allergies under control."
Testimonial for pHi-Zymes #3
"Well, I am more than delighted to add myself to the list of pHi-Zymes users who have experienced dental benefits. Admittedly, I started on pHi-Zymes, April 4th 2012 to be exact, for the athletic/cardiovascular benefits that it promised, but sort of by coincidence, I was way overdue on my dental appointment. I just hate the rough feeling on my teeth that not even a change of toothbrush can affect. Anyway, in well under two weeks (and that's really stretching it) my teeth were as smooth as any dentist visit I've ever had. It's kind of ironic that what's supposed to be a minor beneficial side effect has, in my case, turned out to be the most immediate one. And a powerful one at that.
There seems to be some confusion about the relationship between BN and the Foundation, so I thought I'd take a moment to explain.
These are actually two entirely separate entities with two entirely separate sets of staff -- except for me. (I sort of monitor both on a part time basis.) In fact, the Baseline of Health Foundation sells no products and charges no money for its newsletter or information. To keep the integrity of the site we do not allow any advertising or affiliates. It is a non-profit 501(c)(3) charitable organization dedicated to providing support for the research and development of natural health formulas according to the guidelines expressed in my book, Lessons from the Miracle Doctors, while at the same time serving as an information resource on natural health alternatives. Originally, the Foundation was supported in its entirety through my personal donations, but it got so big over the years, and we've brought on so many staff that was no longer possible; so now BN shares the burden of funding the Foundation.
In exchange, BN gets to make statement at the head of every email announcing the posting of a new newsletter. But they have minimal presence on the actual Foundation website. These are two entirely separate entities. Think of it like PBS where the corporate sponsors get to make their announcements at the beginning of every program.
Incidentally, for those of you who request that one of the staff you're communicating with walk next door and get me to answer a question for them, it doesn't work like that. The two entities are separate and housed in different locations. And some of the Foundation staff work from remote locations. So, it would be impossible for them to simply walk into my office or hand me the phone to answer a question -- on the off chance that I was in my office at the time.
Staff communicates with me by email and phone -- only rarely in person. Also, since the Foundation provides negative cash flow for me, and BN mostly just covers the difference, I spend a large portion of my time consulting and working on special projects to make a living. In other words, I only have a limited number of hours each month that I can devote to helping out at the Foundation and BN. I'm not complaining. I enjoy the time and the opportunity to interact with people living the Baseline of Health Program, but it does mean that:
- I can't personally answer every question that comes in. In fact, there are so many questions that not even all of our staff can do that, which is why the first line of response is an autoresponder. (Note: my schedule related to outside projects is getting so busy that I am likely to have even less time available for assisting with Q&A moving forward.)
- I can't play personal physician for individuals who writes in -- even if it were legal to do so. Even if I had no other job, there wouldn't be hours enough in the day to handle the hundreds of requests that pour in each week. But that's the reason that I created the Foundation website. We have several thousand pages of information on this site, not to mention hours of audio files and video interviews with me. Ninety percent of all the questions we are asked are already answered on the site. Use the menus. Use the search function. The answer to your question is most likely already there.
- I'm not personally involved in everything that happens or everything that is published from either entity. In fact, if you look at the top of the blogs, just above the title, you will see which of our contributors wrote it. Nor do I write the Daily Health Tips. The one thing that I've been able to manage enough time to keep doing personally is the newsletters -- at least so far. And I really enjoy it because it's my one chance to talk directly with all of you. I consider it an honor and a privilege that in these days of instant gratification and 140 character Tweets, that you think enough of my writings to spend the time required to work through something so old fashioned as an extended health essay.
Thank you for your trust.
- 1.Arantes-Rodrigues R, Henriques A, Pires MJ, et al. "High doses of olive leaf extract induce liver changes in mice."Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Sep;49(9):1989-97. Epub 2011 May 17. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21609751>
- 2.Omagari K, Kato S, Tsuneyama K, Hatta H, Sato M, et al. "Olive leaf extract prevents spontaneous occurrence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in SHR/NDmcr-cp rats." Pathology. 2010 Jan;42(1):66-72. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20025483>
- 3.Melissa Hendricks. "The Mouse Model: Less than Perfect, Still Invaluable." Johns Hopkins Medicine. (Accessed 28 June 2012.) <http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/institute_basic_biomedical_sciences/news_events/articles_and_stories/model_organisms/201010_mouse_model.html>
- 4.G.A. McFarland, R. Holliday. "Retardation of the Senescence of Cultured Human Diploid Fibroblasts by Carnosine."Experimental Cell Research Volume 212, Issue 2, June 1994, Pages 167--175 <http://morelife.org/references/full_papers/8187813.pdf>
- 5.McFarland, G.A., R. Holliday. "Further Evidence for the Rejuvenating Effects of the Dipeptide L-Carnosine on Cultured Human Diploid Fibroblasts." Exp Gerontol 34:1 (1999):35--45. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10197726>
- 6.Yuneva, M.O., E.R. Bulygina, S.C. Gallant, et al. "Effect of Carnosine on Age-induced Changes in Senescence-accelerated Mice." J Anti-Aging Med 2:4 (1999):337--342. <http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/rej.1.1999.2.337>
- 7.Boldyrev, A., R. Song, D. Lawrence, et al. "Carnosine Protects Against Excitotoxic Cell Death Independently of Effects on Reactive Oxygen Species." Neuroscience 94:2 (1999): 571--577. <http://morelife.org/references/full_papers/10579217.pdf>
- 8.Quinn, P., A.A. Boldyrev, et al. "Carnosine: Its Properties, Functions and Potential Therapeutic Applications." Molec Aspects Med 13 (1992): 379--444. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/009829979290006L>
- 9.Rosick, Edward R. "How Carnosine Protects Against Age-Related Disease." Life Extension Magazine (January 2006). <http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2006/jan2006_report_carnosine_02.htm>
- 10.Hipkiss AR. "Carnosine and protein carbonyl groups: a possible relationship." Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Jul;65(7):771-8. <http://protein.bio.msu.ru/biokhimiya/contents/v65/pdf/bcm_0771.pdf>
- 11.Hipkiss AR, Brownson C. "A possible new role for the anti-ageing peptide carnosine." Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000 May;57(5):747-53. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10892341>
- 12.Brownson C, Hipkiss AR. "Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein." Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 May 15;28(10):1564-70. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10927182>
- 13.Asif, M., J. Egan, S. Vasan, et al. "An Advanced Glycation Endproduct Cross-link Breaker Can Reverse Age-related Increases in Myocardial Stiffness." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:6 (March 2000): 2809--2813. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10706607>
- 14.Liu, J., M.R. Masurekar, D.E. Vatner, et al. "Glycation End-product Cross-link Breaker Reduces Collagen and Improves Cardiac Function in Aging Diabetic Heart." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285:6 (December 2003): H2587--H2591. <http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/285/6/H2587.full?sid=8719a9eb-fc57-43b5-a555-6a63e6c68eda>
- 15.Preston, J.E., A.R. Hipkiss, D.T. Himsworth, et al. "Toxic Effects of Beta-amyloid(25-35) on Immortalised Rat Brain Endothelial Cell: Protection by Carnosine, Homocarnosine and Beta-alanine." Neurosci Lett 242:2 (February 1998): 105--108. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9533405>
- 16.Münch G, Mayer S, Michaelis J, Hipkiss, et al. "Influence of advanced glycation end-products and AGE-inhibitors on nucleation-dependent polymerization of beta-amyloid peptide." Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Feb 27;1360(1):17-29. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9061036>