Diabetes, Cholesterol, Blood Pressure and Life Extension
In the summer of 2002, I developed a sugar/lipid metabolic enhancement formula. Although extremely valuable for diabetics, this formula was actually designed to smooth out the metabolic "spikes" that come when any of us eats high-glycemic foods. Since its release, I've continued to refine the formula, to enhance its effectiveness. After playing with hundreds of variations, that goal has been accomplished.
Once you begin to explore the world of herbs and supplements that theoretically ameliorate the symptoms of bad diet, you soon discover that there are literally dozens and dozens of them. But after experimenting for a number of months with all of them, you learn that you can focus on a combination of just four. The value of this particular combination lies in the fact that each of the ingredients addresses the key problems through entirely different mechanisms -- thus not just duplicating each other's benefits, but actually complementing and amplifying them. The bottom line is that it becomes quickly evident that the effect of this combination is far greater than the sum of its parts (as significant as that sum is).
Unfortunately, figuring out what ratio to use when combining these ingredients is not easy since there is no historical data using this combination, and there are no studies to base any decisions on. That leaves only one alternative -- trial and error with multiple variations, combined with rigorous testing. After months of playing with the formula and months of tweaking, optimum ratios were determined.
My original formula was based on the following four ingredients:
- Nopal cactus
- Konjac mannan
- Gymnema sylvestre
- High galactomannan fenugreek extract
Let's look at the ingredients individually.
Nopal Cactus -- 300 mg
Nopal (Optunia) is native to the southwestern desert regions of the United States and Mexico and has a whole range of health benefits (all proven in numerous studies, both animal and human). These include the ability to:
- Lower blood sugar levels by blocking absorption of sugar in the intestinal tract. 1, 2, 3, 4
- Lower overall cholesterol levels, improve the ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol, and lower triglycerides by preventing the conversion of blood sugar into fat and by eliminating excess bile acids, which would ultimately be converted into cholesterol.5, 6
- Lower blood pressure.7
- Induce weight-loss by curbing appetite and facilitate the breakdown and excretion of fat.8
- Prevent ulcers.9
- Protect the liver against multiple toxins.10, 11
- Block the absorption of fat.12
Konjac Mannan -- 234 mg
Like nopal, konjac mannan (glucomannan) benefits the human body in numerous ways. Studies have shown that it can:
- Lower blood sugar levels by ameliorating insulin resistance.13
- Improve cholesterol profiles by binding to cholesterol and removing it as waste.14, 15
- Dramatically lower triglycerides.16
- Lower blood pressure in a matter of weeks.16
- Reduce constipation in as little as three days.17
- Help people lose weight and then keep that weight off (significant weight-loss for about 10 weeks, followed by indefinite stabilization).18
Fenugreek -- 192 mg
As far back as ancient Egypt, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was prized for its healing properties. However, its strong bitter taste and its tendency to produce strong odors in sweat and urine made it less than optimal as a substantial component of any formula. A few years ago, however, a tasteless, odorless fenugreek extract with a 60-80% galactomannan content was developed. This allows access to all of fenugreek's benefits, with none of the downside. Benefits include:
- Decreasing the glycemic incidence of food. In studies, the unique galactomannan ratio of galactose and mannose in fenugreek reduced urinary sugar levels of participants by as much as 54%.19
- Decreasing insulin response to food and helping maintain normal serum glucose levels by slowing down the absorption rate of carbohydrates, thereby lowering insulin requirements.20
- Inhibiting the absorption of fats. (The steroidal saponins in fenugreek account for many of its beneficial effects, particularly the inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis.)21
- Aiding in weight-loss by increasing the sense of fullness.22
Gymnema sylvestre -- 192 mg
Gymnema may be the classic "anti-sugar" herb. In India, its name literally means "The Sugar Destroyer." Gymnema offers several unique benefits in this formula.
- It significantly reduces the metabolic effects of sugar by preventing the intestines from absorbing the sugar molecules during the process of digestion, and it accomplishes this through a different mechanism than any of the other ingredients in the formula. The active molecule in gymnema, gymnemic acid, works by "filling" the sugar receptor sites in the intestine -- making them unavailable to ingested sugars.23
- It reduces the symptoms of glycosuria (sugar in the urine).24
- It stimulates the insulin secretion of the pancreas.25
- Even better, It has been shown to regenerate the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, especially the beta cells. In tests on diabetic rats, the pancreas doubled in size and grew new insulin-producing cells. This is very significant. Nothing else does this.26
- Over time, it reduces the taste for sugar in much the same way that it prevents absorption in the intestine. The gymnemic acid blocks the receptor sites of the taste buds. (In fact, put some on your tongue, and it will kill all taste for sugar for a couple of hours.)27, 28
Testing the Effect
When it was first created back in 2002, there were a number of medical doctors who volunteered to test the formula with their patients. Over a period of about 6 months, the results were nothing short of miraculous. (Note: for these studies, the only change the patients made was to take the supplement.)
There are two things that are important to understand. First, without the rest of the Baseline of Health® program being utilized, we are merely managing symptoms here. As long as this natural supplement is used, the symptoms may be moderated, but the underlying condition is unlikely to be resolved if the whole program is not instituted--including dietary changes. Below is a graph showing the blood sugar levels of a typical participant in the study over a period of about six weeks.
The graph shows an astounding drop of almost 500 points in just two weeks. The little hiccup resulted from the individual not using the formula for a day while at the same time indulging in sweets. The next day, when the formula was resumed, the sugar levels once again returned to normal. (This is a good example of why you really want to incorporate the rest of the Baseline of Health Program while using the supplement--to address the underlying condition.) Other examples include patients dropping from 387 to 82 and from 488 to the mid-80s.
The bottom line is that when used as directed, this natural formula absolutely dropped dangerous blood sugar levels into the normal range for many participants. (We'll talk more later about why some participants did not achieve the desired results and how they were able to resolve that.)
There is also another test, the A1c test, which shows the average amount of sugar (glucose) that has been in your blood over the last 2 or 3 months. It does this by measuring the amount of glucose that's attached to your red blood cells. The higher the level of your blood sugar, the more sugar will be attached to your red blood cells. The glucose stays attached to the hemoglobin for the life of the red blood cell, which is about 2 or 3 months. Therefore, A1c test results give a picture of how much glucose has been in your bloodstream during the past 2 or 3 months. On the formula, we watched many people drop from severe diabetic (9.0) to totally non-diabetic (5.7) in under six weeks. This is unprecedented.
Cholesterol is often overrated as a factor in heart disease. In truth, it's guilty by being found at the scene of the crime, not for actually committing the crime itself. However, it is an indicator of other problems in the body--a canary in the coal mine if you will; and there is no question that it thickens the blood, which when combined with narrowed arteries, is a very real risk to the heart and brain.
The bigger problem is that standard prescription medications (statin drugs) damage the one organ in the body, the liver, that's actually responsible for regulating cholesterol. The long term implications of this approach are not good. On the other hand, to be able to regulate cholesterol while truly supporting the liver would be a miracle.
When people were on the formula, we saw consistent downward trends in total overall cholesterol levels, and more importantly, consistent improvement in the LDL/HDL ratios (from 4 to 2.3 in just 3 weeks, for example) -- all while helping rebuild the liver.
We also saw consistent downward trends in triglyceride levels.
Blood pressure dropped enough for several patients to discontinue their blood pressure medication--with their physician's guidance.
Weight-loss in the range of 5-8 lbs during the study. (Again, with no change in diet.)
Although nothing in the formula directly affects the immune system, the formula will, nevertheless, profoundly benefit that system. Since the intake of large amounts of high-glycemic carbohydrates plays havoc with the immune system, preventing the absorption of those carbohydrates will dramatically enhance most people's natural immune functions.
Does it Work for Everyone?
No. Many of the people suffering from blood sugar problems, and particularly senior citizens, also lack sufficient stomach acid to break capsules down in a timely manner. For those people, we found that if they take the formula out of the capsules and drink it down mixed with a little water, they start to see results. Also, keep in mind that this formula will not mask your symptoms like other products often do. Instead, by using the formula as suggested, it is supporting your body's ability to correct the underlying problem. It may take 30-40 days, or even more in some cases for you to begin to see significantly positive results. Results are likely to be quicker and more pronounced if the entire Baseline of Health Program is implemented.
After months of testing, the doctors involved issued two warnings.
- Anyone under a doctor's care for diabetes, high cholesterol, or high blood pressure must use this supplement only with their doctor's permission and guidance since it is extremely likely that it will require changes in their medication.
- It is essential that you use this supplement with food (ideally about 5-10 minutes before eating). If you do not eat when using the formula, you may see your blood sugar levels crash. If you experience such a crash, simply eat some food to move your blood sugar levels back up to normal in a matter of minutes.
Changes to the Formula
Given time over the next several years and the ability to test several hundred more variations, three additions to the formula were implemented that significantly enhanced its effectiveness. Note: the reason it requires so much testing is that the problem lies not just in finding new ingredients and adding them, but in finding the right sources of those ingredients and determining the exact amounts to add without diminishing the effectiveness of the original ingredients. You can't just slam it together based on something you read in an herb book and expect it to work.
1% Corisolic Acid from Banaba Leaf -- 16 mg
The blood sugar regulating properties of corosolic acid, the active ingredient in banaba leaf (Lagerstroemia speciosa), have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal and human studies. In isolated cells, it is known to stimulate glucose uptake.29 In diabetic mice, rats, and rabbits, banaba feeding reduces elevated blood sugar and insulin levels to normal. In humans with type II diabetes, banaba extract, at a dose of 32-48 mg per day for as little as two weeks, has been shown to be effective in reducing blood sugar levels by as much as 30% and maintaining tighter control of blood sugar fluctuations.30 An interesting "side-effect" of tighter control of blood sugar and insulin levels is a significant tendency of banaba to promote weight loss (an average of 2-4 lbs. per month) -- without significant dietary alterations.31 It is likely that modulation of glucose and insulin levels reduces total caloric intake somewhat and encourages moderate weight-loss.
Bitter Melon -- 66 mg
At least three different groups of constituents in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) have been reported to have blood-sugar lowering actions of potential benefit in diabetes mellitus. These include a mixture of steroidal saponins known as charantin, insulin-like peptides, and alkaloids. It is still unclear which of these is most effective, or if all three work together. Already, some clinical trials have confirmed the benefit of bitter melon for people with diabetes.32, 33, 34
Early studies suggest that one of the components of bitter melon extract may be effective in slowing the growth or spread of some types of cancer, particularly breast cancer.35 Cervical cancer patients (stage II or III) have shown some evidence of immune system response to bitter melon while undergoing radiotherapy.36
Some studies suggest that a component of bitter melon seeds may provide benefits for HIV by preventing the virus from infecting human cells. However, these studies have been conducted only in laboratory settings, and no research has been done in humans.37
Note: There is some evidence that couples looking to conceive should not use bitter melon. One study in particular showed that bitter melon may have antispermatogenic activity, at least in rats.38 The study is far from conclusive, and even if true for humans, the results require extremely high levels of bitter melon and are temporary -- with speratogenic activity quickly returning to normal upon ceasing ingestion.
Cinnulin PF® -- 100 mg
Cinnulin PF is a water soluble polyphenol Type A polymer that is the only cinnamon extract validated in studies by the USDA to:
- Improve your body's insulin response up to twentyfold.39
Cinnulin is up to 700% more effective than cinnamon itself and avoids the potentially harmful allergic side effects that can occur when using high doses of cinnamon. In fact, a 2006 study found that 83% of those given the Cinnulin PF active Type A Polymer extract experienced an average 8.4% drop in blood sugar, compared to only 33% of those in the placebo group.40 Moreover, subjects additionally showed statistically lower body fat, enhanced lean body mass, lower systolic blood pressure, and saw improvements in various antioxidant measures
Other studies have demonstrated that these same polymers are both effective mimetics of insulin in vitro as well as insulin potentiators.41 The bottom line is that Cinnulin PF helps metabolic syndrome factors by supporting healthy glucose levels, body composition, and blood pressure in both challenged individuals looking to get better and healthy individuals looking to remain that way.
As it turns out, this formula may also have the ability to extend life. How?
The role of insulin in the aging process is becoming more and more apparent as new research becomes available. For example, Brown University scientists published a study in 2013 concluding that insulin played a "central role" in aging.42 According to the study, when the chemical messages sent by an insulin-like hormone are reduced inside the fat cells of a fruit fly, the fly's lifespan increases significantly, by an average of 50%. Fruit flies are notoriously short-lived but the researchers have begun to understand why some fruit flies live longer than others. They documented a direct association between insulin and life span, tracing an insulin signaling cascade through to protein quality control in muscle tissue and shortened life span, which may have broad implications across species.
The recent Brown University experiments shed important light on the role insulin plays in the regulation of its own synthesis. The study shows that if you block the hormone's action inside a few specific cells, the entire body stays healthier longer. Scientists previously thought insulin triggered other hormones to achieve this effect, but lead researcher Marc Tatar and his team found that insulin regulates its own production and that it directly regulates tissue aging. Bottom line: keep insulin levels low and cells are stronger, better able to fight off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia, and stroke.
As Tatar said when talking about an earlier 2004 study, "Think of the body like a car. We knew insulin controlled the car's speed by regulating things like the gas pedal and the fuel injectors. Now we know that insulin is also the fuel that makes the engine go."43
To conduct the 2004 experiment, Tatar and four other Brown researchers created a line of genetically altered flies which had dFOXO -- a protein controlled by the fly equivalent of insulin -- inserted into the genetic material of fat cells near their brains. Some flies were fed mifepristone, a chemical copy of progesterone. This hormone activated a switch attached to dFOXO, which in turn repressed the normal insulin signals inside the cells. As a surprising result, insulin production was lowered throughout the body. These flies lived an average of 50 days -- 18 days longer than flies whose insulin signals went unchecked.44
"We now know that insulin is a direct player in the aging process," Tatar says. "So the research fits some key puzzle pieces together. And it should change the way we think about aging."
In contrast to the other hormones of aging that decline as we get older and cause manifestations of the aging process through their lower levels, circulating insulin levels actually increase in many individuals as they age. This occurs because the tissues that respond to insulin to lower blood sugar levels (liver, muscle, and fat cells) become resistant to its action. This in turn leads the pancreas to secrete more and more insulin in an attempt to keep the blood sugar at a normal level. This is sometimes called the pseudo-diabetes of aging.
A higher circulating level of insulin sets into motion a cascade of damaging effects:
- The cells lining the arteries produce higher levels of clotting factors--increasing the risk of a heart attack.
- Fat is accumulated, particularly in the abdominal region, which in turn makes the tissues more insulin resistant.
- The higher blood sugar levels increase the accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products which can destroy proteins.
break down organs, and stiffen connective tissue.
- High insulin levels have also been linked to a higher incidence of certain cancers.
If these levels remain high enough for a long enough period of time, they can kill the insulin producing cells in the pancreas and cause overt diabetes.
Bottom line: A major focus of any anti-aging program is to keep insulin levels in a low normal range.
So where do we go from here?
- Metformin, the diabetes drug used to reduce insulin levels, is certainly an option, and although as far as drugs go, metformin is relatively benign, it is not totally without side effects. It occasionally causes death from lactic acidosis, for example, which is not insignificant for those who die.45
- But more importantly, it is quite likely that some minor changes in lifestyle and the use of natural supplements can offer the same benefits with no negative side effects and at less cost.
What Can We Do
Cut way back on your use of refined carbohydrates. In Lessons from the Miracle Doctors, I identified refined carbohydrates as the number two killer in the diet after synthetic trans fats. It now seems they may rank as the number one controllable aging factor. If you find that you are actually addicted to grains and sugars and can't cut back, you might want to check out Dr. Joseph Mercola's book, The No-Grain Diet, which will provide a pathway for cutting back on your grains and sugars. Bottom line, move your diet away from refined grains and sugars to one that consists of complex carbohydrates found in most vegetables (but not potatoes), proteins, and natural fats (avoiding refined oils and hydrogenated oils). Fresh fruits are okay in moderation, but absolutely unacceptable in processed form (as found in pastries and jellies, etc.) and unacceptable as found in bottled juices.
Do a fresh vegetable juice fast one or two days a week. I've always recommended doing just that for its health benefits in cleaning out the body; but as it turns out, it also has significant longevity benefits. As Scientific American points out, "Intermittent fasting, which includes everything from periodic multiday fasts to skipping a meal or two on certain days of the week, may promote some of the same health benefits that uninterrupted calorie restriction promises."46
Use natural glucoregulatory herbs with your meals. These include herbs such as:
- Nopal cactus
- Konjac mannan
- Gymnema sylvestre
- High galactomannan fenugreek extract
- Banaba leaf extract
- Bitter melon extract
- Water soluble polyphenol Type A polymer cinnamon extract
The use of these herbal extracts will significantly reduce the amount of simple carbs your body absorbs, and minimize the insulin response from those that get through. In effect, they will mimic the effect of metformin, without the side effects. This was one of the prime reasons for which I created this formula. In addition:
- Use a full spectrum antioxidant formula to minimize the destructive aging impact of free radicals produced in the body.
- Use an L-carnosine based formula such as Ever Young™ to minimize the impact of Advanced Glycation End Products which can destroy proteins, break down organs, and stiffen connective tissue.
- Consider using an all-natural progesterone crème (women's or men's) to help throttle back insulin production in the body.
- Use a hormonal balancing formula to free up bound testosterone.
One final note. It's never too late to start. In fact, many of the major benefits can be received in as little as four weeks on the program. This formula is not just for people suffering from sugar challenges. Everyone can benefit with regular use.
(Originally published 04/01/2005. Updated 01/09/2015.)
- 1. López-Romero P, Pichardo-Ontiveros E, et al. "The effect of nopal (opuntia ficus indica) on postprandial blood glucose, incretins, and antioxidant activity in mexican patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of two different composition breakfasts." J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Nov;114(11):1811-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132122
- 2. Frati-Munari AC, Gordillo BE, et al. "Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM." Diabetes Care: 1988 Jan;11(1):63-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3276479
- 3. Frati-Munari AC, Del Valle-Martinez LM, et al. "Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus." Arch Invest Med (Mex) 1989 Apr-Jun; 20(2):197-201. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2557805
- 4. Frati-Munari AC, Rios Gil U, et al. "Duration of the hypoglycemic action of Opuntia streptacantha Lem.]." Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1989 Oct-Dec; 20(4): 297-300. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2488768
- 5. Cárdenas Medellín ML, Serna Saldívar SO, Velazco de la Garza J. "Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats." Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1998 Dec;48(4):316-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10347696
- 6. Palumbo B, Efthimiou Y, Oguogho A, et al. "Prickly pear induces upregulation of liver LDL binding in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia." Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2003;6(1):35-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14600931
- 7. Saleem R, Ahmad M, Azmat A, Ahmad SI, et al. "Hypotensive activity, toxicology and histopathology of opuntioside-I and methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii." Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Oct;28(10):1844-51. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/10/28_10_1844/_article
- 8. Chong PW, Lau KZ, Gruenwald J, Uebelhack R. "A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica Derived Fiber for Weight Management." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:943713. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4164135/
- 9. Galati EM, Monforte MT, Tripodo MM, et al. "Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study." J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Jun; 76(1):1-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11378276
- 10. Galati EM, Mondello MR, Lauriano ER, et al. "Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. Fruit juice protects liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced injury." Phytother Res. 2005 Sep; 19(9): 796-800. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16220574
- 11. Ncibi S, Ben Othman M, et al. "Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver." Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Feb; 46(2): 797-802. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17980473
- 12. Uebelhack R, Busch R, Alt F, Beah ZM, Chong PW. "Effects of cactus fiber on the excretion of dietary fat in healthy subjects: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical investigation." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2014 Jun 21;76:39-44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109417/
- 13. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, et al. "Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from Konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial." Diabetes Care. 2000 Jan;23(1):9-14. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/23/1/9.long
- 14. Chen HL, Sheu WH, Tai TS, Liaw YP, Chen YC. "Konjac supplement alleviated hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic subjects--a randomized double-blind trial." J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):36-42. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12569112
- 15. Arvill A, Bodin L. "Effect of short-term ingestion of konjac glucomannan on serum cholesterol in healthy men." Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Mar;61(3):585-9. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/61/3/585.long
- 16. a. b. Arvill
- 17. Passaretti S, Franzoni M, Comin U, et al. (1991). "Action of glucomannans on complaints in patients affected with chronic constipation: a multicentric clinical evaluation". Ital J Gastroenterol 23 (7): 421--5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1742540
- 18. Joyce Keithley, Barbara Swanson. "Glucomannan and Obesity: a Critical Review." Alternative Therapies, Nov/Dec 2005. Vol. 11, No, 6. http://www.clinicalstudiespublishing.com/pdf/supplemental/Glucomannan_and_obesity_review.pdf
- 19. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. "Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes." Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990 Apr;44(4):301-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2194788
- 20. Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. "Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study." J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Nov;49:1057-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11868855
- 21. Muraki E, Hayashi Y, Chiba H, et al. "Dose-dependent effects, safety and tolerability of fenugreek in diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats." Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Dec 21;10:240. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292492/
- 22. Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Slavin JL. "Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects." Phytother Res. 2009 Nov;23(11):1543-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353539
- 23. Wang Y, Dawid C, Kottra G, et al. "Gymnemic acids inhibit sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1." J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jun 25;62(25):5925-31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24856809
- 24. KS Ganpati, RA Maroti, et al. "Parameters Studies for Development of Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf Extracts: As Injectable Anti-Diabetic." IJRAP 3(2), Mar-Apr 3012. http://www.ijrap.net/admin/php/uploads/788_pdf.pdf
- 25. Al-Romaiyan A, Liu B, Docherty R, Huang GC, et al. "Investigation of intracellular signalling cascades mediating stimulatory effect of a Gymnema sylvestre extract on insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets of Langerhans." Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Dec;14(12):1104-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22775778
- 26. Shanmugasundaram ER, Gopinath KL, et al." Possible regeneration of the islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin-diabetic rats given Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts." J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Oct;30(3):265-79. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2259215
- 27. Elsbeth Sites. "Gymnemic Acid." Science & Food. November 18, 2014. (Accessed 7 Jan 2015.) https://scienceandfooducla.wordpress.com/2014/11/18/gymnemic-acid/
- 28. Janneane F. Gent, Thomas P. Hettinger, et al. "Taste Confusions following Gymnemic Acid Rinse." Chem. Senses (1999) 24 (4): 393-403. http://chemse.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/4/393.full
- 29. Shi L, Zhang W, Zhou YY, Zhang YN, et al. "Corosolic acid stimulates glucose uptake via enhancing insulin receptor phosphorylation." Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 14;584(1):21-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18348886
- 30. Judy WV, Hari SP, et al. "Antidiabetic activity of a standardized extract (Glucosol) from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves in Type II diabetics. A dose-dependence study." J Ethnopharmacol. (2003) 2003 Jul;87(1):115-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787964
- 31. Toshihiro Miura, Satoshi Takagi, Torao Ishida. "Management of Diabetes and Its Complications with Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) and Corosolic Acid." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 871495. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468018/#B22
- 32. Raman A1, Lau C. "Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae)." Phytomedicine. 1996 Mar;2(4):349-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23194773
- 33. Krawinkel MB, Keding GB. "Bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia): A dietary approach to hyperglycemia." Nutr Rev. 2006 Jul;64(7 Pt 1):331-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16910221
- 34. Shetty AK, Kumar GS, et al. "Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats." Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2005 Sep;60(3):109-12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16187012
- 35. Cao D, Sun Y, Wang L, et al. "Alpha-momorcharin (a-MMC) exerts effective anti-human breast tumor activities but has a narrow therapeutic window in vivo." Fitoterapia. 2014 Nov 15;100C:139-149. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25447153
- 36. Pongnikorn S, et al. "Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) on level and function of natural killer cells in cervical cancer patients with radiotherapy." Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2003;86:61-68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12678140
- 37. Fang EF, Ng TB. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568930
- 38. Naseem MZ, Patil SR, Patil SR, et al. "Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of Momordica charantia (Karela) in albino rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 May;61(1):9-16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9687077
- 39. Jarvill-Taylor KJ, Anderson RA, Graves DJ. "A hydroxychalcone derived from cinnamon functions as a mimetic for insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes." J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20:327--336. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11506060
- 40. Tim N Ziegenfuss, Jennifer E Hofheins, et al. "Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women." J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006; 3(2): 45--53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2129164/#B3
- 41. Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, et al. "Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity." J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jan 14;52(1):65-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14709014
- 42. Bai H, Kang P, Hernandez AM, Tatar M. "Activin Signaling Targeted by Insulin/dFOXO Regulates Aging and Muscle Proteostasis in Drosophila." PLoS Genet. 2013 Nov;9(11):e1003941 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820802/
- 43. The News Service. "Insulin plays central role in aging, Brown scientists discover." Brown. June 2, 2004. (Accessed 8 Jan 2015.) http://www.brown.edu/Administration/News_Bureau/2003-04/03-149.html
- 44. Hwangbo DS, Gersham B, Tatar M, et al. "Drosophila dFOXO controls lifespan and regulates insulin signalling in brain and fat body." Nature 429, 562-566 (3 June 2004). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v429/n6991/full/nature02549.html
- 45. Manes M, Pellu V, Caputo D, et al. "Metformin- related lactic acidosis." G Ital Nefrol. 2014 Nov-Dec;31(6). pii: gin/31.6.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504165
- 46. David Stipp. "How Intermittent Fasting Might Help You Live a Longer and Healthier Life." Scientific American Volume 308, Issue 1. (Accessed 9 Jan 2015.) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-intermittent-fasting-might-help-you-live-longer-healthier-life/